The values are qualities or attributes considered positive, necessary and desirable humans assigned to objects and other humans. They are characterized by being associated with the idea of ​​”good” or by being useful for individual and social life.

Anti- values, on the other hand, are also attributes that are assigned to objects and people, with the exception that these represent something negative, unnecessary or undesirable, that is, they are associated with the idea of ​​“bad”. In this way, the antivalues ​​are the counterpart of the values. When an antivalue manifests itself in a subject or object, it implies an evil for something or someone.

Difference between Values and Antivalues

What are Values?

Generally speaking, values ​​are qualities attributed to objects that human beings see as positive, necessary, and / or desirable.

Thus, a large majority of values ​​are based on subjective motivations, on the positive or practical result that possessing certain qualities implies, associated with the idea of “good” or “useful”.

The values ​​themselves are not a material object, but are attributes that can satisfy a need or desire, assigned by people to something or subject. That is, a value is a quality that someone perceives in a subject or object, be it material or ideal (such as the idea of ​​beauty).

Values ​​(and antivalues) as attributes are a way of ascribing qualities to something or someone. To say that a person is “good” or that stealing is “bad” is to attribute a value. Thus, the values ​​are expressed in a predicative way.

This is why many thinkers point out that both values ​​and anti-values ​​are based on a subjective perspective rather than on the objects or people to whom they are attributed.

In the same way, values ​​are not always equivalent to ethical precepts or moral ideals. Even if there are moral values, there are also values ​​that are related to economic processes, such as the use value of an object, or also aesthetic values ​​related to the idea of ​​beauty when contemplating a work of art.

It is common for values ​​to be seen as innate qualities in the human being. In this way, freedom, for example, is thought of as a value that each person possesses. Likewise, values ​​are understood as behavioral guides for human beings. In this case, values ​​such as honesty are a way of acting that people is expected to have, for the social good.

Characteristics of the Values

  • They are attributes that are assigned to objects and subjects.
  • They represent positive, desirable, useful and / or necessary qualities.
  • They are associated with forms of behavior that allow a harmonious social life.
  • For each value there is an opposite antivalue (peace and war).
  • They are attributable to more than one object or subject and, in turn, each object or subject can have several values.

Examples of values

  • Honesty: it is the quality of telling the truth or acting sincerely.
  • Responsibility: consciously do something and assume its consequences.
  • Prudence: act with diligence and paying attention to the consequences.
  • Justice: it is about parity in the distribution of something as appropriate and equitably.
  • Freedom: the ability to act voluntarily and without limitations.

What are Antivalues?

The antivalues, basically, are the opposite of the values. If a value is a positive, desirable and necessary quality attributed to an object or person, an antivalue is defined as a negative, undesirable and unnecessary quality that is attributed to an object or person.

An antivalue is understood as something that is not desirable, because its presence leads to negative results. For example, ineffectiveness can be seen as an anti-value because it implies the non-realization of an expected result. If a company has certain objectives and the workers are ineffective, the objectives will not be achieved. Hence, an antivalue is undesirable, does not generate utility and is unnecessary.

Furthermore, antivalues ​​represent an antithesis (opposition) of what values ​​achieve socially. Anti-values ​​such as slavery destroy the harmony of social life, if freedom is seen as a human value (and right). In a society where there is slavery, for example, there is also an anti-value such as injustice. In that case, they are anti-values ​​in a moral sense.

Characteristics of Antivalues

  • They are attributes that are assigned to objects and subjects.
  • Its qualities are negative, undesirable, unnecessary and / or of no use.
  • When they manifest themselves in behaviors, they undermine social life.
  • For each antivalue there is an opposite value.
  • An object or subject has several qualities that manifest antivalues, and each antivalue can be assigned to an infinite number of subjects and objects.

Examples of Antivalues

  • Dishonesty: using lies or deception.
  • Irresponsibility: acting consciously in breach of what is assigned and / or avoiding its consequences.
  • Recklessness: acting without taking care of the consequences.
  • Injustice: it is when there is an unequal distribution without basis in the actions of the subjects.
  • Slavery: the deprivation of the power to act according to one’s own conscience and will.

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